Causes of Infertility
Anatomic defects such as tubal disease may contribute to problems in achieving pregnancy. Tubes are not just tubes; they are organs. They have muscles in their walls that contract and little “fingers” that line the inside of the fallopian tube that move the egg and embryo through the tube into the uterus. A common problem involving the tube is the damage that a sexually transmitted disease like chlamydia or gonorrhea can cause. These infections can enter the uterus and damage the muscles of the tube, which may prevent them from contracting and cause them to accumulate fluid. This is called a hydrosalpynx.
In addition, the “fingers” can be stuck together, preventing them from moving the egg or embryo into the uterus. This can cause an ectopic pregnancy – a pregnancy that implants in the tube. Scar tissue can also be found around the tubes for other reasons making it hard for the fallopian tubes to interact with the ovaries.