Other medical conditions, such as severe injury, major surgery, diabetes, HIV, thyroid disease, liver or kidney failure, heart attack, and chronic anemia may affect sperm quality.
Treatments for male factor infertility may include: antibiotic treatment for infection or hormone treatment if a hormone imbalance is identified; avoiding radiation and environmental toxins, chemicals, pesticides, and lubricants; avoiding excessive alcohol, smoking, and drug abuse; therapy to treat ejaculation problems; or surgery to correct structural abnormalities. Dietary supplements such as omega-3 fatty acids, Naturally Smart, and Proxeed are formulated to enhance male fertility and may improve overall sperm quality.
One way to overcome male factor challenges is through the use of artificial insemination. This is where a man’s sperm is inserted into a women’s vagina, cervix or uterus around the time of ovulation. An advanced technique called intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to achieve fertilization has been shown to be highly effective. It is often used in cases with very low sperm counts. Even for men with no sperm, techniques to directly acquire the sperm from the testes or the ducts that deliver sperm can been used with great success. For men with extremely low counts or absent sperm, sperm donors represent another option.